Determining the Egg Fertilization Rate of Bemisia tabaci Using a Cytogenetic Technique. The genus may be identified using the following combination of characters: cuticle usually completely pale, occasionally brownish pigmentation, margin irregular crenulate, often modified at caudal and/or tracheal openings at margin to form ill‐defined combs of fine teeth, with margin often shallowly indented at these points, transverse moulting sutures not reaching margin, medial length of abdominal segment VII less than half that of VI, vasiform orifice acute‐triangular, sometimes laterally sinuous, posteroapically often ill‐defined and usually leading into a pronounced caudal furrow; operculum occupying basal half of orifice; head of lingula typically elongate‐triangular, finely spinulose, bearing a pair of apical setae, always exposed but included within vasiform orifice, chaetotaxy and presence/absence of dorsal sculpturing and tubercles may be highly variable within species. With the adults, spread out each body and arrange the appendages. We present a simple cytogenetic technique using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to determine the fertilization rate and primary sex ratio of the haplodiploid invasive pest Bemisia tabaci. Effects of heat shock on survival and reproduction of two whitefly species, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci biotype B. Bemisia tabaci nomenclature: Lessons learned. The silverleaf whitefly is a small plant-feeding insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, and both immature and adult whiteflies feed on the undersides of leaves. Exp. Not sinuous; with transverse bands (seen under phase contrast); large disc shaped head. Frequently grouped and the density per leaf high. In practice, experience of past interceptions, hosts and country of origin, mean that one can strongly suspect nonpuparial stages to be B. tabaci. Yellowish‐white when laid, becoming dark The base of each egg is fluorescing due to bacterial DNA (Portiera, Hamiltonella, and possibly Rickettsia) in the bacteriome progenitor cell, which is included in the laid egg20,21. It is also flexible in that it can be modified to stain older eggs, for those researchers interested in capturing development. They also occasionally occur on the upper surfaces of the leaves and vary from being widely scattered to forming dense clusters. The challenge of this protocol is that it requires researchers to learn how to handle the whitefly eggs quickly, ensuring that not more than 1 h has passed since the eggs were oviposited until they are fixed. Remove the adult whiteflies from the leaf. account is secure. Pipette off the liquid. Label using Bristol board squares before placing in the collection to dry. Gently heat for 5–10 min, depending on how waxy the specimens are. Please recommend JoVE to your librarian. Pores may be duplicated or apparently missing. Using a fine spatula transfer a single specimen onto a clean glass slide, with the dorsal surface upwards. Females average about 160 eggs each. Pale puparia may be stained. 1994), and therefore is compatible with the use of parasitic wasps as biological control agents. Morphological and molecular evidence supporting the validity of Trialeurodes lauri and T. ricini (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2004.00729.x, With 6 pairs of abdominal compound wax‐producing pores, on segments III–VIII, the anterior two pairs much smaller than the posterior four pairs, Pupal case colourless, with or without brownish patches, Less than half of total length of vasiform orifice occupied by operculum and lingula together, More than half of total length of vasiform orifice occupied by operculum alone or by operculum and lingula together, Dorsal disc and/or submargin with a pattern of stout, acute or tubiform spines, Dorsal surface without a pattern of stout spines, although sometimes with a submarginal row of conspicuous hairs or setae, or with a few stout setae on the dorsal disc, Submargin with a regular row of normally 14 fine, acute setae. (146), e59213, doi:10.3791/59213 (2019). Most whitefly species are arrhenotokous, and females are produced from fertilized eggs. There were seven blocks for calculating the fertilization rate or primary sex ratio, while there were six blocks for calculating the adult sex ratio, as there were not enough leftover eggs from one block to rear to adulthood. Insecticide resistance. As for eggs reared to adulthood, 60 R- and 95 R+ adults were scored. Since the early 1980s, it has caused escalating problems to both field and protected agricultural crops and ornamental plants. Drying can take two months or more to complete. Bemisia afer Voucher specimens and those required for future study are mounted in Canada balsam, which Brown (1997) concluded was one of the best mediums for permanent preparations. Wait for 10 min. Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus